Thyroid Cancer

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Thyroid Cancer Clinical TrialsGeneral Purpose:

Thyroid cancer affects the thyroid gland, which is a small gland located at the base of the neck, just below the Adam’s apple. There are four types of thyroid cancer that thyroid cancer clinical trials study, including papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic.

Thyroid cancer will affect approximately 56,000 individuals in the United States in 2012 and fewer than 2,000 will die from the disease. However, despite these seemingly encouraging statistics, rates of thyroid cancer seem to be on the increase in the United States.

Although this is likely due to the fact that newer and better technologies are allowing doctors to find smaller tumors that may not have been detectable with older methods, researchers are still working hard to determine the causes of thyroid cancer, better ways to detect and prevent it, and improved methods for treatment.  

What Will Thyroid Cancer Clinical Trials Be Like?

When participating in thyroid cancer clinical trials, there are a few basic tests and procedures you may receive; however, the ultimate design of the particular study will determine which specific procedures you will undergo. Some of the following tests and procedures may be used during thyroid cancer clinical trials:

  • Physical exam
  • Blood test to measure the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in your body.
  • Biopsy
  • Computed tomography (CT scan, or “CAT scan”) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. These imaging procedures are non-invasive and provide detailed pictures of areas inside your body.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan, which is an imaging procedure that uses a radioactive sugar injected into the blood through a vein in the arm. This substance attaches to cancer cells in the body, making them visible when viewed by a special camera.
  • Ultrasound of the neck.
  • If the study is evaluating a new type of medication or vaccine, blood and/or urine tests may be performed to monitor how your body metabolizes the medication or how effectively your body has responded to the vaccine.
  • Quality of life assessments to evaluate how your cancer is impacting your ability to perform activities of daily living.
  • Pain assessments

Typical Protocol for Thyroid Cancer Clinical Trials:

Current thyroid cancer research is devoted to discovering more about what causes the disease, how to prevent it from occurring, and ways to improve existing treatments. Thyroid Cancer Clinical TrialsSample clinical trials might include the following:

  • A study that evaluates increased screening methods for individuals with a particular genetic mutation known to incur a high risk of thyroid cancer, to determine if regular and increased screening efforts lead to a) earlier detection of thyroid cancer and b) more successful treatment outcomes.
  • A clinical trial that investigates whether thyroid cancer patients who have their thyroid gland removed have less of a risk of cancer recurrence if they are treated with radioactive iodine therapy following surgery.
  • A clinical trial in which half of the thyroid cancer patients receive standard surgery, while half receive a drug that cuts off blood supply to the thyroid tumor prior to standard surgery, in order to determine if those who receive the drug + surgery combination have a better outcome overall.

A brief word about randomized trials and placebos:

Many clinical trials, like thyroid cancer clinical trials, involve the comparison of an investigational treatment to a “standard” treatment. Some studies determine which therapy a patient receives through a process known as randomization, in which patients are randomly assigned to receive either the investigational treatment or the standard treatment.

Thyroid Cancer Clinical TrialsOn occasion, a trial will investigate the use of a standard treatment plus a new drug compared to standard treatment plus a placebo. Placebos are inactive or “sham” treatments that are identical in appearance to the active treatment but have no therapeutic value.

Placebos are necessary to help determine if adverse effects that occur during the clinical trial are the result of the investigational treatment or due to some other factor. They also allow researchers to measure the effects of the active treatment and observe what would have happened without it.

In rare instances where no standard therapy exists, or when a new drug is being evaluated for the first time in a specific cancer, the investigational treatment might be compared to a placebo alone. In these types of trials, those patients who are randomized to the placebo group do not receive an active treatment.

This is rarely done in cancer clinical trials; however it may occasionally be necessary from a scientific standpoint. Placebo-only trials will only be done when ethically appropriate and when patients have been adequately informed that they may end up receiving the placebo rather than the active treatment.

It is very important to note, however, that no one should ever participate in such a placebo trial when there is a widely available and highly effective standard treatment already in existence for their particular type of cancer and clinical situation.

Trial Eligibility and Medical Information Needed for Thyroid Cancer Clinical Trials:

The type of clinical trial you may be eligible for often depends on many factors, including Thyroid Cancer Clinical Trialsyour disease stage, treatment history, and a variety of clinical findings. Therefore, it is important to know many details pertaining to your specific diagnosis when searching for clinical trials. Examples of the details you will want to have on hand include:

  • The name, location, size, stage, and cell type of your cancer, as well as the locations of any metastases you have. Also know these details for any prior cancer you have had.
  • Know your performance status, which estimates how well you perform normal activities of daily living. Examples: Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) and the ECOG scale.
  • Know your treatment history, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and/or surgery.
  • Know your blood cell counts, liver function test results, and kidney function test results.

Suggested Search Terms:

Once you are ready to begin your search for thyroid cancer clinical trials, it might be best to use the specific type of thyroid cancer you have (e.g., medullary or follicular), followed by any one of the terms listed below. However, if that approach results in too few findings, try using “thyroid cancer” rather than your specific thyroid cancer type.

The following search terms may be of use when combined with either your specific thyroid cancer  type or the term “thyroid cancer”: “treatment,” “chemotherapy,” “radiation therapy,” “management,” “surgery,” “advanced,” “iodine therapy,” “targeted therapy,” “diet,” “screening,” “risk factors,” “side effects,” “pediatric,” and “children.”

Current Search Term:

“Thyroid Cancer”

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Trail Evaluating Apatinib With IMRT for Inoperable or Iodine Refractory Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Interventions:   Drug: Apatinib;   Radiation: Intensity modulated radiation therapy
Sponsor:   Xiayun He, MD
Recruiting


Clinical Prediction Thyroid Cancer With Thyroid Ultrasonography


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Diagnostic Test: Thyroid ultrasonography
Sponsor:   China Medical University Hospital
Enrolling by invitation


Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Interventions:   Drug: Nivolumab;   Drug: Ipilimumab
Sponsors:   Dana-Farber Cancer Institute;   Bristol-Myers Squibb
Recruiting


RAI Plus Immunotherapy for Recurrent/Metastatic Thyroid Cancers


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Interventions:   Drug: Durvalumab (Medi4736);   Radiation: Radioiodine (RAI)
Sponsors:   Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center;   AstraZeneca;   MedImmune LLC
Recruiting


Efficacy of Apatinib in Radioactive Iodine-refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Interventions:   Drug: Apatinib Oral Tablet;   Drug: Placebo Oral Tablet
Sponsor:   Peking Union Medical College Hospital
Recruiting


Hereditary Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Genetic: •Referral to Genetic Counselor, if indicated
Sponsor:   Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Recruiting


Phase II Study Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Lenvatinib for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Drug: Lenvatinib
Sponsor:   Translational Research Informatics Center, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan
Recruiting


A Study Using Regorafenib as Second or Third Line Therapy in Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Drug: Regorafenib
Sponsors:   Dana-Farber Cancer Institute;   Bayer
Recruiting


A Phase II Study of MLN0128 in Metastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer


Conditions:   Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer;   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Drug: MLN0128
Sponsors:   Dana-Farber Cancer Institute;   Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Recruiting


A Study of Two Different Doses of Cabozantinib (XL184) in Progressive, Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Interventions:   Drug: Cabozantinib (XL184) 140 mg;   Drug: Cabozantinib (XL184) 60 mg;   Drug: Placebo tablet;   Drug: Placebo capsule
Sponsor:   Exelixis
Recruiting


Evaluation of Efficacy, Safety of Vandetanib in Patients With Differentiated Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Interventions:   Drug: Vandetanib (SAR390530);   Drug: Placebo
Sponsor:   Genzyme, a Sanofi Company
Completed


Study Comparing Complete Remission After Treatment With Selumetinib/Placebo in Patient With Differentiated Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Interventions:   Drug: Selumetinib;   Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Radioactive Iodine Therapy
Sponsor:   AstraZeneca
Active, not recruiting


The Use of Candy and Honey in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage Following Radioiodine Therapy for Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Dietary Supplement: thymus honey mouthwash
Sponsors:   Cyprus University of Technology;   Bank of Cyprus Oncology Centre
Recruiting


Vemurafenib Neoadjuvant Trial in Locally Advanced Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Interventions:   Drug: Vemurafenib (All Groups);   Drug: Vemurafenib (Post Surgery) - Group A + C;   Other: Post Surgery - Group B
Sponsors:   M.D. Anderson Cancer Center;   Genentech, Inc.
Active, not recruiting


Diagnosing Thyroid Cancer Using a Blood Test


Condition:   Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:  
Sponsor:   Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust
Completed


IoN- Is Ablative Radio-iodine Necessary for Low Risk Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Radiation: I131 1.1 GBq
Sponsors:   University College, London;   Cancer Research UK
Recruiting


Pasireotide & Everolimus in Adult Patients With Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated & Medullary Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Interventions:   Drug: Everolimus;   Drug: Pasireotide;   Drug: Everolimus and Pasireotide
Sponsors:   Emory University;   Novartis
Active, not recruiting


Thyroid Cancer Among Chornobyl Clean-up Workers in Ukraine: Pilot Study


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:  
Sponsor:   National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Recruiting


Decision Making on Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Papillary Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Other: Decision aid exposure
Sponsors:   University Health Network, Toronto;   Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care;   Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Completed


RAD001 for Patients With Radioiodine Refractory Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Drug: RAD001
Sponsors:   Dana-Farber Cancer Institute;   Massachusetts General Hospital;   M.D. Anderson Cancer Center;   Mount Sinai Hospital, New York;   Novartis
Active, not recruiting



An Initial Study of Lithium in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Drug: Lithium carbonate
Sponsor:   University of Wisconsin, Madison
Terminated


An Efficacy Study Comparing ZD6474 to Placebo in Medullary Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Drug: ZD6474 (Vandetanib)
Sponsor:   Genzyme, a Sanofi Company
Active, not recruiting


A Study To Assess ZD6474 (ZACTIMA™) Monotherapy In Locally Advanced or Metastatic Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Drug: ZD6474 (vandetanib)
Sponsor:   Genzyme, a Sanofi Company
Completed


Recombinant Thyrotropin PET-CT Fusion Scanning in Thyroid Cancer


Condition:   Thyroid Cancer
Intervention:   Drug: Recombinant thyrotropin
Sponsors:   Johns Hopkins University;   Gustave Roussy, Cancer Campus, Grand Paris;   M.D. Anderson Cancer Center;   Genzyme, a Sanofi Company
Unknown status

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